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It is necessary to consider carefully any in-service over-speed conditions which could result from sudden disconnection of full load for example.
Any particular requirements shall be agreed upon. This also applies to compensator rotors. The P-Q diagram shall be drawn for operation at rated conditions. In many cases this line is also shown as constrained by stability considerations, determination of which requires knowledge of the power system to which the machine will be connected. Hence, it is common for line C on the P-Q diagram, for a machine alone, to be drawn showing any absolute limits required to protect core end parts and showing further stability factor constraints for illustration purposes only.
Additional diagrams may be provided for operation at agreed conditions, for instance at reduced cooling or, where applicable, at hydrogen pressures other than rated. EN IEC pdf download. Tags: Rotating electrical machines. Free IEC Standards. It may also be desirable to check for possible shaft balance changes and deformation of the coupling bolts and couplings. For generators of all sizes and types of cooling covered by this standard, the value of the short-circuit ratio shall be not less than 0, Higher minimum values may be specified and agreed upon for example by a grid demand , but, for a given cooling system, these usually require an increase in generator size and higher losses.
When the direct axis transient or subtransient reactances are specified having regard to the operating conditions, the following values should be agreed upon:.
Since the two reactances depend to a great extent on common fluxes, care should be taken to ensure that the values specified and agreed upon are compatible, that is, that the upper limit of the subtransient reactance is not set too close to the lower limit of the transient reactance. When the value of the direct axis subtransient reactance is not specified, it shall be not less than 0,1 p.
The value of each of these reactances may be specified and agreed upon at another saturation level in accordance with IEC If it is agreed that values are to be determined by test, the test shall be in accordance with IEC Where the limit values of this standard, or other limits, have been specified or agreed upon, there shall be no tolerance in the significant direction, that is, no negative tolerance on minimum values and no positive tolerance on maximum values.
Unless otherwise agreed upon, the rotor shall have a mechanical design capable of withstanding during its lifetime:. Before start-up and after shut-down, turning gear operation of the turbine generator set may be unavoidable primarily due to prime mover needs. However, prolonged turning gear operation may make the generator rotor susceptible to damage and should be limited. Susceptibility to turning gear operation damages can be influenced by the design.
If a longer. The test pressure shall be 1,5 times the maximum working pressure, and shall be applied for 15 min. If the water pressure in the cooler is controlled by a valve or pressure-reducing device connected to a water supply where the pressure is higher than the working pressure of the cooler, the cooler shall be designed for the higher pressure, and tested at 1,5 times the higher pressure value, unless otherwise agreed upon.
This pressure shall be specified by the purchaser. Coolers shall be designed so that, if one section is intended to be taken out of service for cleaning, the unit can carry at least two-thirds or, by agreement, another fraction of rated load continuously, without the permissible temperatures of the active parts of the generator being exceeded.
Under these conditions, the primary coolant temperature may be higher than the design value. For hydrogen and liquid cooled generators, attention should be paid to the fact that under some conditions of operation, for example during maintenance or while purging the casing of gas, a cooler might be subjected to gas pressure without water pressure.
It shall therefore be designed for a differential pressure of 8 bar kPa on the gas side. NOTE Increasing concentrations of chemicals in the water, for example salts or glycol can affect the cooling performance.
This clause applies to generators, the active parts of which are cooled by air, either directly or indirectly or by a combination of the two methods. The system of ventilation should preferably be a closed air circuit system. If an open air system is specified or agreed upon, care shall be taken to avoid contaminating the ventilation passages with dirt, to avoid overheating and pollution of insulated surfaces. When slip rings for excitation are provided, they should be ventilated separately to avoid contaminating the generator and exciter with carbon dust.
In order to monitor the temperature of the stator winding, at least six embedded temperature detectors ETD shall be supplied in accordance with IEC This clause applies to generators the active parts of which are cooled directly or indirectly by hydrogen, gas or liquid, or by a combination of both.
Some generators may use a gas other than hydrogen, if so, the same rules apply where appropriate. The manufacturer shall indicate the absolute hydrogen pressure and purity in the casing, at which the generator produces its rated output. NOTE It is recognized that a conversion from absolute pressure to local gauge pressure is required.
The reduced ambient air pressure at altitudes exceeding 1 m above sea level must be taken into account when designing the auxiliaries. The complete generator housing, and any pressure-containing cover plates for example over coolers for use with hydrogen as a coolant, shall be designed to withstand an internal explosion, with the explosive mixture initially at atmospheric pressure, without danger to personnel.
A hydrostatic pressure test shall be made to check the strength of the housing and cover plates. A suitable test would be the application of 9 bar absolute kPa for 15 min.
The terminals for hydrogen-cooled generators shall be designed to withstand a gas pressure of at least 9 bar absolute kPa. Terminal insulators shall be electrically tested independently of the generator windings, and they shall withstand for 60 s a power-frequency dry dielectric test in air of not less than 1,5 times the 1 min test voltage of the generator winding.
NOTE When the terminals are liquid-cooled, the coolant connections need not be made for the high voltage test. If so:. For directly cooled generators, it is important to note that the temperature measured by ETD is no indication of the hot-spot temperature of the stator winding. Observance of maximum coolant temperatures given in item 1 in Table 11 of IEC will ensure that the temperature of the winding is not excessive.
The limit of permissible temperature measured by ETD between the coil sides is intended to be a safeguard against excessive heating of the insulation from the core. The ETD temperature readings may be used to monitor the operation of the cooling system of the stator winding. The number of temperature detectors measuring the coolant temperature where it enters the generator shall be agreed upon.
For generators with direct cooling of the stator winding, the temperature of the cooling medium at the outlet of this winding shall be measured with at least three temperature detectors.
These detectors should be in intimate contact with the coolant. Therefore, if the winding is gas-cooled, they should be installed as close to the exit duct from the coil as is consistent with electrical requirements. If the winding is water cooled, they should be installed on the piping inside the generator frame or as near as practicable to where the coolant leaves the frame, care being taken that there is no significant temperature difference between the point of measurement and the point where the coolant leaves the winding.
Some or all of the following equipment will be required for satisfactory operation of generators covered by Clause 6, depending on the design of the coolant and auxiliary systems. The list is not intended to be complete in all details, and other items may be provided. If the pressurized air system of the power station is used to drive the scavenging gas from the casing, the connection to the air system shall be arranged to ensure that air cannot be released into the generator except to remove the scavenging gas, for example by having a removable pipe connection.
Two independent means for indicating purity should be provided. An emergency supply of seal oil shall be provided, to operate automatically if the main supply fails. This clause applies to generators driven by gas turbines or for combined cycle applications with open-circuit air cooling, or closed-circuit cooling using air or hydrogen where the requested generator output is a function of the ambient temperature. A generator driven by a combustion gas turbine and conforming to this part of IEC will be suitable for carrying a load in accordance with its rating and capabilities under the following service conditions.
For open-circuit air-cooled generators, the primary coolant temperature is the temperature of the air entering the generator. This will normally be the ambient air temperature. For generators with closed-circuit cooling, the primary coolant temperature is the temperature of the air or hydrogen entering the generator from the coolers.
The range of this coolant temperature shall be determined by the manufacturer, to obtain optimum design of generator and coolers, based upon the range of secondary coolant temperature ambient air or water specified by the purchaser.
The load may be applied rapidly and the rate of generator loading is limited only by the ability of the turbine to take up the load. Therefore, a combustion gas turbine and a generator with equal capabilities will have different ratings.
At rated output, the temperature rises in Tables 7 and 8 or the temperatures in Table 12 of IEC shall not be exceeded. The generator parameters shall be defined with respect to this rating unless otherwise agreed upon. The capability of a generator is its highest acceptable loading in apparent power under specified conditions of operation.
The base capability is the range of continuous output expressed in apparent power available at the generator terminals:. The active power component of the base capability of the generator divided by the generator efficiency shall equal or exceed the base capability of the combustion gas turbine over the specified range of air temperature at the intake to the turbine at site. It may be agreed that beyond some submitted low or high air temperature, it is not necessary for the base capability of the generator to equal that of the turbine.
It may then be possible to meet all other requirements with a slightly smaller generator. The manufacturer shall supply a curve of base capability under site conditions over the specified range of primary or secondary coolant temperature see Figure 3.
For a generator with open-circuit air cooling, this coolant temperature can be taken to be the same as that of the air at the turbine intake Figure 3, scale X. Where automatic re-circulation of air is fitted for low ambient temperature applications, the curve shall refer to the actual cooling air temperature differing from the ambient air at the turbine intake.
In a generator with closed-circuit cooling, using a water-cooled heat exchanger, the temperature of the water the secondary coolant may not have a direct correlation with the ambient air temperature. Hence, as the ambient air temperature falls, the generator capability may not change or may rise more slowly than the turbine capability.
If the generator size is determined by the turbine output at low air temperatures, its output capability will be considerably in excess of that required at normal ambient temperatures. For all these reasons, agreement should be made regarding the extent to which the generator capability should match that of the turbine. NOTE 1 The curves supplied for a particular generator will extend only over the range of coolant temperature specified. For a generator with a heat exchanger, it is not intended that a scale of primary coolant temperature be shown also.
The two scales of primary or secondary coolant temperature are included here merely to show forms of the diagram. For indirectly cooled windings, the temperature rises when operating at site shall be in accordance with Tables 7, 8 and 9 of IEC as appropriate, adjusted as follows:.
For windings directly cooled by air or hydrogen the total temperatures when operating on site shall be in accordance with the limits of Table 12 of IEC , adjusted as follows:. The peak capability is the generator rating obtained when operating the generator at an increased temperature or temperature rise not exceeding 15 K with respect to temperature or temperature rise at base capability. NOTE Operation at peak capability will decrease the lifetime of the generator because insulation ages thermally at about three to six times the rate that occurs at base capability temperatures.
The consideration set out in 7. The rating plate shall show the information stipulated in IEC , plus the value of the peak capability output at the primary coolant temperature on which the rating is based.
Temperature tests shall be made by agreement. Temperatures or temperature rises shall be in accordance with 7. This annex gives guidance on some design features and operating procedures that are intended to avoid the occurrence, or ignition of an ignitable mixture of hydrogen and air, either in the generator itself or in and around associated equipment.
It is not, however, intended as a complete specification or code of practice sufficient for the safe design and operation of the installation. Responsibility for the safe design of the generator and its auxiliaries rests primarily with the manufacturer. Responsibility for the safe design of other parts of the installation should be agreed upon between the parties concerned. The manufacturer is responsible for providing the official operating and maintenance instructions.
Any modification of the manufacturer's instructions to suit a particular application should only be done through the manufacturer's formal revision procedure. If the exciter or sliprings are situated in a housing into which hydrogen may leak, the accumulation of an explosive hydrogen-air mixture shall be prevented, for example by maintaining a flow of air through the enclosure, see Clause A.
The flow can usually be produced easily while the shaft rotates at normal speed. Additional means may be needed when the generator contains hydrogen and the shaft is stationary or rotating slowly. An intake and exhaust duct may be provided to vent hydrogen leakage through natural convection and buoyancy. If local fans are used to ensure ventilation, their motors shall have a type of protection for explosive gas atmospheres in accordance with the appropriate part of IEC The fans shall not exhaust the air.
They shall provide a forced draft from a clean air source. The auxiliary equipment, when used, shall comply with the requirements prescribed in A.
The degassing tanks of the hydrogen and seal oil systems shall be suitable for a test pressure of 1,5 times the maximum operating absolute pressure or an absolute pressure of kPa, whichever is the greater. Brittle or possibly porous materials, such as cast iron, shall not be used for components subject to hydrogen or seal oil pressure.
The gas dryer shall be suitable for a test pressure of 1,5 times the maximum operating absolute pressure or an absolute pressure of kPa whichever is the greater.
The equipment shall comply with the following general safety rules:. This requires valves to be interlocked or pipe connections to be readily removable and of a special type;. A lower limit may be needed to avoid damage to a drying agent such as activated alumina. The heater shall be arranged, for example by interlocking its switch with the valves, so that it can operate only during the regeneration period;.
NOTE Measuring instruments and control devices are not related to the gas dryer. They might be covered in a separate subclause of a future edition of this standard. This applies, for instance, to the following devices: electrical devices supervising the degree of hydrogen purity, contact electrical manometers or thermometer pressure gauges provided with electrical tele-transmitters. The connections to components in all electrical circuits shall be made so that temperature rise during operation, vibration or ageing of insulating materials will not cause deterioration of the connection.
For appropriate examples, see IEC Electrical connections shall be designed to prevent inadvertent disconnection or loosening that may cause sparking. To avoid large volumes of hydrogen being accidentally released, either into the generator if a control valve fails, or into the surrounding area if a leak into the atmosphere occurs, the following rules shall apply.
If any hydrogen pipework is in ducts or buried underground, it shall be arranged so that any leaking hydrogen may be detected and safely dispersed. If the hydrogen supply is continuously open to the generator, the operating pressure being maintained by a pressure control valve, the supply pipes placed outside the buildings shall be provided either with.
Thus, if a large leak occurs, the main supply of hydrogen will be cut off. A possible schematic arrangement according to item a above is shown in Figure A. If the plant is fitted with manually operated opening stop valves, preferably those on the supply cylinders, hydrogen shall be supplied to the pressure control valve periodically to keep the gas pressure within the defined band.
It is common practice to reduce the pressure from the storage cylinders to the generator frame in two stages. There should be a safety valve on the low pressure side of each stage which shall be vented to a safe place, see A. The accumulation of an ignitable hydrogen-air mixture in the bearing oil system and seal oil system including, of course, the bearing brackets themselves shall be prevented. Continuously-operating exhausting devices shall be installed in appropriate places. The generator bushings, the connections to them and any enclosures shall be designed so that hydrogen cannot accumulate in the event of a leak.
If phase isolated busbars are used, the design of these shall be such that hydrogen cannot accumulate in the trunkings or conduits. Vent pipes carrying hydrogen or hydrogen-air mixtures shall be routed so as to prevent any accumulation of hydrogen-air mixtures at locations where the gas is being discharged.
In the discharging area, there shall be no windows or air intakes, and no sources of ignition, for example, open flames or sources of corona discharge or electrical sparking.
Forced ventilation may be necessary in some circumstances, see Clause A. If so, it should be provided by non-sparking forced draught fans or, if compressed air is used, the discharge nozzle should be earthed. Particular attention shall be paid to any areas containing equipment operating at high temperatures or in which sparking could occur.
Open flames, welding, smoking, or other means of ignition shall not be allowed within the vicinity of the generator and its auxiliaries. There shall be no ignitable hydrogen-air mixture within the generator.
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