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A flower, which is the reproductive part of the plant, has several parts: the sepals, calyx, pedicel, stamen or the male reproductive part and the petals. The stamen further comprises a filament and anther, while the pistil, which is the female reproductive part, consists of the stigma, style and ovary. Humans reproduce and give birth to their young ones sexually, and the process involves several steps, mainly pre-fertilisation, internal fertilisation and post-fertilisation.

The human reproductive system comprises both the male and female reproductive system, indicating a highly complex and differentiated mode of reproduction. All processes leading up to reproduction, such as the onset of puberty, sexual differentiation and secondary sexual characteristics are discussed in detail in this NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF.

The state of absolute mental, social and physical well-being and the absence of disease, in terms of all reproductive processes, are known as reproductive health. India was among the first countries in the world to initiate and regulate family planning policies, as part of a higher social goal to attain complete reproductive health and also control population explosion.

It explains why members of a family tend to look similar, how we get our genes from our parents and how genetic material is inherited during sexual reproduction.

Gregor Johann Mendel first explained how traits are passed from one generation to another. He was able to do so by conducting a series of experiments on the pea plants, and by carefully observing how traits expressed themselves in the filial plant generation. The NCERT Biology class 12 PDF also details how traits can pass themselves in varying patterns and specifying ratios, manifesting themselves as phenotypes and genotypes in the offspring. As discussed above, genes form the basis of genetic inheritance in living organisms.

We often hear how we look similar to our parents or resemble our younger siblings. But how does this happen? DNA is the molecule that forms the basis of genetics, inheritance and variation in living organisms.

It has a double-helical structure, made of nucleotides, which are the fundamental units or building blocks of DNA. When you watch an elephant drinking water, or a tiger leaping to catch its prey, you are essentially observing a highly-evolved mammoth or sabre-toothed tiger doing so. The seventh chapter of the NCERT Biology class 12 new edition PDF talks about how a particular species displays drastic changes in its characteristics, over several years to better adapt to its environment, or survive, a direct result of natural selection.

The process of evolution relies on the genetic variations and differences in observed phenotypes. According to Charles Darwin, evolution is mediated by natural selection; that is, individuals with better strategies are likely to survive more than the others, making evolution an essential chapter for class 12 students. The definition of health has, over time, somewhat changed and evolved.

It is the state of absolute mental, social and physical integrity in an individual, such that the individual can perform all daily functions of life without any difficulty. In the NCERT textbook class 12 Biology, stress is laid on the various factors governing good health in individuals, such as a balanced diet, a strict exercise regimen and proper sanitation. How a healthy person reacts to an agent of disease depends on his or her immunity.

The ability to protect the body against various disease-causing factors is known as immunity. Diseases can be broadly categorised into infectious and non-infectious as you will soon learn.

Food comprises all such substances that are necessary for the proper functioning of the body. Food is the source of all the primary nutrients that keep our bodies running, and must contain adequate amounts of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, fats and minerals.

So what is food production? It is a set of processes that starts from growing, cultivating, harvesting, packaging and transporting up to consuming it, to meet our bodily needs. The NCERT Biology class 12 PDF covers the basics of food production as well as novel methods that are being employed to improve the quality of food produced, such as animal and plant breeding.

The air and the atmosphere around is teeming with multitudes of microbial organisms, some friendly and some dangerous.

Microorganisms commonly include all bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, viruses, prions and viroids. These may be unicellular as well as multicellular, for instance, bacteria, protozoa and certain types of algae are unicellular while algae and fungi, in general, are multicellular organisms. Examples include the E. These microbes are invisible to the naked eye and can be observed only through a microscope. Biotechnology is the science that harnesses the advantages of both biology and other emerging technologies.

According to the NCERT 12th Biology book PDF, biotechnology encompasses all the biomolecular and cellular processes, in a beneficial mix that can help improve life on Earth drastically. Although the field of Biotechnology is a recently emerged one, we have nevertheless employed the many principles of biotechnology in making food products, such as bread, butter and cheese. The extent to which Biotechnology has helped to solve the world's many dire issues by using genetic tools and processes, is massive.

Biotechnology is a fast-evolving field that revolves around cutting-edge research and development, in critical areas such as molecular biology, chemistry, biochemistry among others.

Biotechnology helps resolve problems like: how do diseases spread? Why are some people prone to cancer while others are not? Biotechnologists, as you will soon learn in the NCERT Biology class 12 PDF, focus on how genetics can be used to cure fatal diseases, how plant varieties can be improved by using vectors and so on. When you are studying how a chameleon camouflages itself in some foliage or studying about how climate change greatly affects our world, you are essentially doing the work of an ecologist.

So what is ecology? According to the NCERT books class 12 Biology, ecology is a study of the various relationships between diverse living organisms, such as animals and their surroundings, how humans leave an impact on the environment and the many vital interconnections between abiotic and biotic components of the atmosphere.

Knowledge of ecology is vital to our understanding of the environment and how we can effectively manage our resources. There remain several species of plants and animals, which have been declared as a keystone species of an ecosystem. These can be extremely vulnerable and even be on the verge of extinction. Ecosystems are stretches of geographic terrain or water where various species of animals, plants and microbial organisms coexist together.

Ecosystems contain both abiotic and biotic components, such as animals, plants, rocks, humidity and sunshine. The class 12 biology NCERT PDF download entails all such factors, as well as describing how different physical components like temperature affect our ecosystems. The penultimate chapter of the NCERT Biology class 12 PDF, biodiversity is an umbrella term used for all the diverse species of living organisms that coexist on Earth, which includes all the plants, animals, human beings and bacteria living on the planet.

According to scientists, our planet houses more than 8. Of these, only 1. While the planet's biodiversity is vibrant and teeming with life, to say the least, it stands on the precipice of extinction and survival against all the odds. Human activities, such as pollution, deforestation and industrialisation have threatened the sanctity of life on Earth, and you will learn all about how conservation can help prevent it, in this chapter.

In NCERT Biology class 12, attention is paid to how issues pose an immense risk to our environment, and also threaten the survival of keystone species. With an ever-increasing population, more and more land stands are exposed to human exploitation, making the study of environmental issues crucial to our existence. A quick read through this will help you figure out the most important parts and what to focus on. Clear and concise presentation: What a lot of books lack is clear and precise handling of facts, which the NCERT books, not surprisingly, do well.

This makes the books extremely reliable, and students can be assured that studying from these books will fetch them excellent marks. The marks obtained in Class 12 will decide the career path of students. Keeping this in mind, the expert faculty have prepared all the chapters of the books based on the latest CBSE syllabus. The textbooks are designed keeping in mind the exam preparation of students irrespective of their intellectual levels. Good Excellent super wonderful this ok It is good for education Helpful for exams.

Your Mobile number and Email id will not be published. Post Comment. Tasmiya July 27, at pm. Nikhila February 9, at pm. This is use for exams Good preparation This is good for excellence.

Did not receive OTP? Register For Free. Share Share Share Call Us. Download Now. A top. Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms.

Chapter 2 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants. Chapter 3 Human Reproduction. Chapter 4 Reproductive Health. Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation. Chapter 6 Molecular Basis of Inheritance.

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12 cbse biology book pdf free download Reproduction in Organisms. The ability to fre the body against various disease-causing factors is known as immunity. Class 9 Class To prepare well for the board exams, students should choose the perfect reference guides which help them to grasp the concepts effortlessly. Entrance Exams. The course content will help students prepare well in advance for their board examinations and give them an edge over other students in terms of marks scored.
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Web4 hours ago � Xam Idea English for CBSE Class CBSE New Pattern Mathematics Class 9 for Exam Oswaal NCERT & CBSE Question Bank. Class 7 View . WebJun 26, �� NCERT Books Class Students can download NCERT Books for Class 12 Biology in PDF by clicking on the given links below. We have provided the complete . WebJun 19, �� Class 12 Biology NCERT Books Download PDF Free. You can click on the chapter-wise links below to download each chapter that you are looking for in PDF .