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Real argument, by contrast, takes time and practice. Marshaling our reasons, proportioning our conclusions to the actual evidence, considering objections, and all the rest these are acquired skills.
We have to grow up a little. We have to put aside our desires and our opinions for a while and actually think. School may help or not. In courses concerned with teaching everlarger sets of facts or techniques, students are seldom encouraged to ask the sorts of questions that arguments answer. Sure, the Constitution mandates an Electoral College that s a fact but is it still a good idea? For that matter, was it ever a good idea?
What were the reasons for it, anyway? Sure, many scientists believe that there is life elsewhere in the universe, but why? What s the argument? Reasons can be given for different answers. In the end, ideally, you will both learn some of those reasons and also learn how to weigh them up and how to seek out more yourself.
Mostly, again, it takes time and practice. This book can help! Moreover, the practice of argument turns out to have some attractions of its own. Our minds become more flexible, open-ended, and alert. We come to appreciate how much difference our own critical thinking can really make.
From everyday family life to politics, science, philosophy, and even religion, arguments are constantly offered to us for our consideration, and we may in turn offer back our own. Think of argument as a way to make your own place within these unfolding, ongoing dialogues. What could be better than that? Outline of this book This book begins by discussing fairly simple arguments and moves to extended arguments and their use in essays and oral presentations at the end.
Chapters I VI are about composing and assessing short arguments. Short arguments simply offer their reasons and evidence briefly, usually in. We begin with short arguments for several reasons. First, they are common: in fact so common that they are part of everyday conversation. Second, longer arguments are usually elaborations of short arguments, or a series of short arguments linked together.
If you learn to write and assess short arguments first, then you can extend your skills to longer arguments in essays or presentations. A third reason for beginning with short arguments is that they are the best illustrations both of the common argument forms and of the typical mistakes in arguments.
In longer arguments it can be harder to pick out the main points and the main problems. Therefore, although some of the rules may seem obvious when first stated, remember that you have the benefit of a simple example. Other rules are hard enough to appreciate even in short arguments. Chapter VII guides you into sketching and then elaborating an extended argument, considering objections and alternatives as you do.
Chapter VIII guides you from there into writing an argumentative essay. Chapter IX then adds rules specifically about oral presentation. Again, all of these chapters depend on Chapters I VI, since extended arguments like these essentially combine and elaborate the kinds of short arguments that Chapters I VI discuss.
Don t skip ahead to the later chapters, then, even if you come to this book primarily for help writing an essay or doing a presentation. At the very least, read through the shaded sections of the earlier chapters the parts from the Rulebook for Arguments, on which this book is based so that when you arrive at those later chapters you will have the tools you need to use them well.
Three appendixes close out Part 1 of the Workbook. The first is a listing of fallacies: types of misleading arguments that are so tempting and common, they even have their own names. The second offers three rules for constructing and evaluating definitions.
The third, which is not included in the original Rulebook, covers argument mapping, which is a powerful technique for understanding how the pieces of an argument fit together. Use them when you need them! Part 2 new in the Workbook offers model responses to the oddnumbered exercises in nearly every exercise set. Most model responses have commentaries that explain the strengths and weaknesses of each response.
Part 3 also new in the Workbook contains longer critical thinking activities that build on the rules and exercises in Part 1. Some of these you can do on your own. Others you will need to do in class or with a group of classmates. The passages with the sidebar come from Anthony Weston s Rulebook for Arguments.
The passages without the sidebar are new to the Workbook for Arguments. The new elements in Part 1 consist mainly of exercise sets designed to help you learn how to apply the lessons from the passages with the sidebars.
You can get the main ideas of each chapter by reading just the passages with the sidebars. Before attempting an exercise set, though, be sure to read both the Rulebook text before it and the Tips for success that accompany the exercise set.
After you have completed an exercise set or at any rate, after you ve given it your best shot take a look at the model responses for that exercise set.
You ll find the model responses in Part 2. We strongly encourage you to read them even if you don t need help doing the exercises.
The model responses often contain important further discussions. Moreover, part of their aim, considered as a whole, is to paint a wide-ranging and compelling picture of critical intelligence at work.
The spirit of critical thinking is just as vital as the letter, so to speak, and in the Workbook you will find both. Every exercise set ends with a suggestion about how to get more practice applying the skills used in that exercise set. Many of these suggestions are most effective if you work in a group.
If you find that you consistently want more practice, form a study group with some of your classmates. From time to time, your instructor may have you complete one of the critical thinking activities from Part 3. These activities are designed to be especially enjoyable and engaging and to help you connect the material in this book to your own life. Be sure to find out whether your instructor has any additional or alternative instructions for the activity, or if he or she wants you to complete one of the variations listed at the end of the activity s assignment sheet.
Critical thinking is a skill and like most skills, it s a skill that you can always improve, even if you re already good at it. Reading about guidelines for critical thinking, such as the rules presented in this book, is an important part of honing your skill, but there is no substitute for practice.
That could even be Rule Practice, practice, practice. The aim of this workbook is to give you an opportunity for guidance, practice, and feedback. With some persistence and hard work, you ll find yourself thinking more clearly and more critically than ever.
Chapter I offers general rules for composing short arguments. Chapters II VI discuss specific kinds of short arguments. Identify premises and conclusion The very first step in making an argument is to ask yourself what you are trying to prove. What is your conclusion? Remember that the conclusion is the statement for which you are giving reasons.
The statements that give your reasons are your premises. Consider these lines from Winston Churchill: I am an optimist. It does not seem to be much use being anything else.
This is an argument as well as an amusing quip because Churchill is giving a reason to be an optimist: his premise is that It does not seem to be much use being anything else.
Premises and conclusion are not always so obvious. Sherlock Holmes has to explain one of his deductions in The Adventure of Silver Blaze : A dog was kept in the stalls, and yet, though someone had been in and fetched out a horse, [the dog] had not barked Obviously the One is explicit: the dog did not bark at the visitor.
The other is a general fact that Holmes assumes we know about dogs: dogs bark at strangers. Together these premises imply that the visitor was not a stranger.
It turns out that this is the key to solving the mystery. When you are using arguments as a means of inquiry, you sometimes may start with no more than the conclusion you wish to defend. State it clearly, first of all. Maybe you want to take Churchill a step farther and Rule 1 1. If so, say so explicitly. Then ask yourself what reasons you have for drawing that conclusion. What reasons can you give to prove that we should be optimists?
You could appeal to Churchill s authority. If Churchill recommends optimism, who are we to quibble? This appeal will not get you very far, however, since equally famous people have recommended pessimism. You need to think about the question on your own. Again, what is your reason for thinking that we should be optimists? One reason could be that optimism boosts your energy to work for success, whereas if you feel defeated in advance you may never even try.
Optimists are more likely to succeed, to achieve their goals. Maybe this is what Churchill meant as well. If this is your premise, say so explicitly. This book offers you a ready list of different forms that arguments can take. Use this list to develop your premises. To defend a generalization, for instance, check Chapter II.
It will remind you that you need to give a series of examples as premises, and it will tell you what sorts of examples to look for. If your conclusion requires a deductive argument like those explained in Chapter VI, the rules outlined in that chapter will tell you what types of premises you need.
You may have to try several different arguments before you find one that works well. Exercise Set 1. Instructions: Rewrite each argument below, underlining the conclusion of each argument and putting brackets around each premise.
Tips for success: Distinguishing premises from conclusions is sometimes more of an art than a science. We wish people were always clear about the premises and conclusions of their argument, but that s just not the case. Therefore, learning to distinguish premises from conclusions takes practice. As you practice, there are two strategies that you should keep in mind. The first strategy is simply to ask yourself what the author of this argument is trying to convince you to believe.
The claim that the author is trying to get you to believe is the argument s conclusion. Then you can ask what reasons the author gives to try to convince you. These will be the argument s premises. Some words or phrases are conclusion indicators. These are words or phrases that tell you that you re about to read or hear the conclusion of an argument.
Other words or phrases are premise indicators. These tell you that you re about to read or hear a premise. Here s a sample of the most common conclusion and premise indicators: Conclusion Indicators therefore thus hence so consequently this shows that Premise Indicators because since given that for on the grounds that this follows from You ll start to notice more indicator words as you get better at analyzing arguments. Two more pieces of advice: First, don t rely solely on indicator words.
Some arguments will not use any indicator words. Others will use indicator words in other ways. Some words, like because, since, and so, have many other uses; not every use of because indicates that you re about to hear a premise. When in doubt, fall back on our first strategy: ask yourself whether the author is giving you a reason for the conclusion. If your answer is no, you haven t found a premise, even if the sentence includes because or since. Second, don t assume that everything in a passage is either a premise or a conclusion.
Not all passages contain arguments. Some passages are telling stories, describing things, giving explanations, issuing commands, making jokes, or doing other things besides giving reasons for a conclusion.
Even in passages that do contain arguments, some sentences or clauses will provide background information, make side comments, and so on. Again, the key is to ask yourself, Is this sentence stating a conclusion or giving me a reason to believe that conclusion?
If it is doing either, it s part of an argument; if not, it s not. Adapted from: Steven M. Cahn, letter to the editor, New York Times, May 21, The markings in this sample problem indicate that the last sentence is the conclusion and that each of the first three sentences is a separate premise. Although each sentence in this letter to the editor expresses either a premise or a conclusion, remember that many passages contain sentences or parts of sentences that are neither premises nor conclusions.
You don t need to bracket or underline those parts of sentences. Racial segregation reduces some persons to the status of things. Hence, segregation is morally wrong. Adapted from: Martin Luther King, Jr. Stacy found shrimp in the turtle s throat. Sea turtles can only catch shrimp if they are stuck in nets with the shrimp. Therefore, the dead sea turtle was probably caught in a net.
Most people experience no side effects from the yellow fever vaccine. People with egg allergies shouldn t get the yellow fever vaccine, though, because some part of the vaccine is grown inside eggs. There are two ways of settling a dispute: by discussion and by physical force. Since the first way is appropriate for human beings and the second way appropriate for animals, we must resort to force only when we cannot settle matters by discussion. Before undergoing PET, the patient inhales a gas containing radioactive molecules.
The molecules are not dangerous for the patient because they break down within a few minutes, before they can do any damage.
Adapted from: Bryan Kolb and Ian Q. Wishaw, Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology, 5th ed. New York: Worth Publishers, , The head of the spy ring is very dangerous. He is also exceptionally clever and a master of disguise.
He has a dozen names and a hundred different appearances. But there is one thing he cannot disguise: he is missing the tip of his little finger. So, if you ever meet a man who is missing the top joint of his little finger, you should be very careful! Some people buy college degrees on the Internet because they re trying to pretend that they went to college. That s a waste of money, since it s easy to make a college degree on your computer, and a degree that you make yourself is just as good as a degree that you bought on the Internet.
People are created equal and endowed with unalienable rights. Governments exist to protect those rights. When a government violates those rights, people have a right to rebel against that government and create a new one. The king of Great Britain has repeatedly violated the rights of the American colonists. Thus, the American colonists have a right to rebel against the king of Great Britain.
Adapted from: U. Declaration of Independence. It shouldn t surprise anyone that charter schools associated with the public school system perform better than those that operate on their own. Although the public-school bureaucracy can sometimes make it hard to get things done, it also provides invaluable support and services to the charter schools that are associated with it.
I don t see why some people are intent on destroying the public-school system. Was it a politically motivated crime or a private one? I thought right away that it must be a privately motivated crime. Political assassins move quickly and flee.
But in this case, the murderer s footprints are all over the room, showing that he had spent quite a while in this room. Take a look at the editorials, op-eds, and letters to the editor on the Web site for your favorite newspaper.
Most of these will contain arguments. Working by yourself or with a classmate, identify the premises and conclusions in those arguments. Rule 2 Develop your ideas in a natural order Short arguments are usually developed in one or two paragraphs. Put the conclusion first, followed by your reasons, or set out your premises first and draw the conclusion at the end. In any case, set out your ideas in an order that unfolds your line of thought most clearly for the reader.
Consider this short argument by Bertrand Russell: The evils of the world are due to moral defects quite as much as to lack of intelligence.
But the human race has not hitherto discovered any method of eradicating moral defects Intelligence, on the contrary, is easily improved by methods known to every competent educator. Therefore, until some. Russell begins by pointing out the two sources of evil in the world: moral defects, as he puts it, and lack of intelligence.
He then claims that we do not know how to correct moral defects, but that we do know how to correct lack of intelligence. Therefore notice that the word therefore clearly marks his conclusion progress will have to come by improving intelligence.
Getting an argument to unfold in this smooth sort of way is a real accomplishment. It s not easy to find just the right place for each part and plenty of wrong places are available.
Suppose Russell instead argued like this: The evils of the world are due to moral defects quite as much as to lack of intelligence. Until some method of teaching virtue has been discovered, progress will have to be sought by improvement of intelligence rather than of morals. Intelligence is easily improved by methods known to every competent educator.
The human race has not hitherto discovered any means of eradicating moral defects. These are the same premises and conclusion, but they are in a different order, and the word therefore has been omitted before the conclusion. Now the argument is much harder to understand, and therefore also much less persuasive. The premises do not fit together naturally, and you have to read the passage twice just to figure out what the conclusion is.
Don t count on your readers to be so patient. Expect to rearrange your argument several times to find the most natural order. The rules discussed in this book should help. You can use them to figure out not only what kinds of premises you need but also how to arrange them in the best order. Bertrand Russell, Skeptical Essays ; repr. Instructions: Each of the following passages contains an argument. Put the premises in a natural, meaningful order, and write them out in a numbered list.
Then, write the conclusion at the end of the list. Tips for success: It s often helpful to outline arguments in premise-andconclusion form. This involves several steps.
First, identify the premises and the conclusions, just as you did in Exercise Set 1. Then, put the premises in a meaningful order that is, an order that helps you understand how the premises connect with one another and with the conclusion.
In many cases, there won t be a single best ordering. Try a few different orderings and pick the one that makes the most sense to you. When you have settled on a meaningful order for the premises, write the premises down in a numbered list. It s helpful to make each premise a complete sentence, replacing pronouns like him or it with the names of the people or things they stand for.
Finally, write the conclusion at the end of the list. Some logicians draw a line between the premises and the conclusion, much like the line that mathematicians draw between an arithmetic problem and its answer.
This line shows that the premises add up to the conclusion. Other logicians write therefore or include the symbol which means therefore before the conclusion. If genetically modified salmon escaped into the wild, they would compete with natural salmon for food. Natural salmon, though, have been honed by natural selection to flourish in the wild.
Genetically modified salmon are not designed to flourish in the wild. Thus, non-genetically modified salmon would outcompete genetically modified salmon if genetically modified salmon escaped into the wild. Adapted from: Dawn of the Frankenfish, The Economist, Jun 10, 1 If genetically modified animals escaped into the wild, they would compete with natural salmon for food.
Therefore, 4 Non-genetically modified salmon would outcompete genetically modified salmon if genetically modified salmon escaped into the wild. This argument already presents its ideas in a natural order.
The only thing needed to put it into premise-and-conclusion form is to identify the premises, put them in a numbered list, and add therefore before the conclusion. The first sentence in the passage is not a premise in the argument. Its purpose is to provide context for the argument, not to give a reason to accept the conclusion. We do not need to include it in our outline of the argument. As a basketball player, Michael Jordan had a unique combination of grace, speed, power, and competitive desire.
He had more NBA scoring titles than anyone else. He retired with the NBA s highest scoring average. Therefore, Michael Jordan is the greatest basketball player of all time. Someone who can t get enough to eat clearly lives in poverty. But someone who can t afford the things that his or her society regards as necessities also lives in poverty. Wealthier societies will regard more things as necessities than poorer societies. Thus, the. Krantz, one of the investigators, believes that Bigfoot is a species of primate known as a Gigantopithecus.
Therefore, Bigfoot really does exist. Smaller high schools are better than larger high schools since smaller high schools have been shown to have higher graduation rates and a higher proportion of students going on to college.
New York City has broken a number of large high schools up into several smaller schools. Adapted from: David M. In , something flattened eight hundred square miles of forest in a part of Siberia called Tunguska. Theories abound about the Tunguska event. Some people say it was a UFO. Some even say it was a tiny black hole. Recently, however, scientists discovered that a lake in the area has the shape of an impact crater that would have been created by an asteroid or comet.
So, the Tunguska event was caused by an asteroid or comet. There is a generation gap in Americans knowledge of politics. That is to say, older people know more about politics than younger. This is not the result of older people generally being more interested in politics than younger people. Opinion polls from the s through the mids show that younger people used to be at least as well informed about politics as the older people of their time were.
Adapted from: Robert D. After all, we should do everything we can to encourage cautious driving. Since people behave much more cautiously when they know that their life is on the line, steering wheel mounted spears would make people drive much more cautiously.
Adapted from: Steven E. Human nature is not inherently good. Human nature consists of those human traits that are spontaneous; these things cannot be learned. Thus, if something can be learned, then it is not part of human nature. Yet, goodness is not spontaneous; people must learn how to be good.
Ivanhoe and Bryan W. This shows that a meaningful life is not the same as an enjoyable life. At the same time, someone who is alienated from her life or feels like her life is pointless, even if she is doing things that might seem worthwhile from an objective perspective, is not leading a meaningful life.
This shows that a meaningful life is not the same as a life spent on objectively worthwhile projects. All of this shows that neither enjoyment nor objectively worthwhile projects, considered separately from the other, are sufficient for a meaningful life. Young people receive the majority of their information through popular culture. Focus on Essay Writing Essay writing is a process and a product. You need to focus on the process in order to achieve a high quality product.
What is an essay? The word essay originally meant to test or. Writing an essay Look back If this is not your first essay, take a look at your previous one. Did your tutor make any suggestions that you need to bear in mind for this essay? Did you learn anything else. Planning and Writing Essays Many of your coursework assignments will take the form of an essay. This leaflet will give you an overview of the basic stages of planning and writing an academic essay but.
Writing Thesis Defense Papers The point of these papers is for you to explain and defend a thesis of your own critically analyzing the reasoning offered in support of a claim made by one of the philosophers. This is not a word for word transcript of the programme This series is all about chunks of language. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein.
What are Reports? Writing Effective Reports Reports are documents which both give a reader information and ask the reader to do something with that information.
Conversation Lesson News Topic: News Aims: - To develop fluency through a range of speaking activities - To introduce related vocabulary Level: Intermediate can be adapted in either direction Introduction. We have moral duties to do things which it is right to do and moral duties not to do things.
It is not a summary of others thoughts, a personal essay or a review or critique. Information in regular type inside the boxes and all information. Critical analysis Be more critical! More analysis needed! That s what my tutors say about my essays. I m not really sure what they mean. I thought I had written a really good assignment this time. I did. WHY Through this activity, your child. Michael Lacewing Philosophical argument At the heart of philosophy is philosophical argument. Arguments are different from assertions.
Assertions are simply stated; arguments always involve giving reasons. Weston, Anthony. Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company, Incorporated. English language-Rhetoric. ISBN: ISBN: X. EISBN: OCLC: Syndetics Unbound. Summary From academic writing to personal and public discourse, the need for good arguments and better ways of arguing is greater than ever before. This timely fifth edition of A Rulebook for Arguments sharpens an already-classic text, adding updated examples and a new chapter on public debates that provides rules for the etiquette and ethics of sound public dialogue as well as clear and sound thinking in general.
From academic writing to personal and public discourse, the need for good arguments and better ways of arguing is greater than ever before. This timely fifth edition of A Rulebook for Arguments sharpens an already-classic text, adding updated examples and a new chapter on public debates that provides rules for the etiquette and ethics of sound public dialogue as well as clear and sound read more.
Video And Music. Video Games. More by This Author. Look Inside. Librarian Recommends: Lists Related Lists. See More Lists. Professional Reviews. Reader Reviews Reviewed by 4 people What do you think? Write your own review. Concise and Precise This concise introduction to critical thinking presents rules for clear thinking, valid communications, and creating and assessing persuasive arguments.
Its 87 brief pages are readily accessible to high school students, and useful to anyone interested in offering correct evidence and valid reasons to support conclusions.
When so much of what we read, hear, and see is intended to persuade us, or even mislead us, it is important to distinguish valid arguments from careless or manipulative ones. If good writing is clear thinking made visible, then this book provides excellent advice for writers. As a rulebook, it begins by presenting 30 rules for clearly constructing a valid case supporting your conclusion. It then turns to applying these rules for writing argumentative essays.
It also treats fallacies and includes an appendix on correct use of definitions. The author recognizes this book is only an introduction to these topics and provides a good list of further reading. Fallacies are seductive and often go unnoticed and unchallenged. In this book, many fallacies are described alongside the rules they violate. A short chapter then names and briefly describes many types of fallacies. I would have liked to see this expanded. We have long recognized sexist and racist language and work to purge it from use.
I look forward to a time when a broader set of fallacies will be routinely recognized and corrected in everyday conversation.
|Sleazyworld go sleazy flow mp3 download||We do not need to include it in our outline of the argument. Sources should be cited Factual assertions not otherwise defended may be supported by reference to the appropriate sources. This is not a word for word transcript of the programme This series is all about chunks of language More information. Don't just rely on the government for the best information on the human rights situation in countries the government happens to support or oppose. Thus, unlike most textbooks in argumentative writing or "informal logic," this book is organized around specific rules, illustrated and explained soundly but above all briefly. Concise and Precise This concise introduction to feee thinking presents rules for clear thinking, valid communications, and creating and assessing persuasive arguments. The example of Juliet alone might illustrate early marriage.|
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